Chloroquine and bacterial resistance

Discussion in 'Hydroxychloroquine' started by Splin74, 02-Mar-2020.

  1. McHost.Ru Moderator

    Chloroquine and bacterial resistance


    Rapid diagnostic assays for Pf CRT mutations are already employed as surveillance tools for drug resistance. Here, we review recent field studies that support the central role of Pf CRT mutations in chloroquine resistance.

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    India contributed to as many as 27 per cent of the world’s drug-resistant TB cases, followed by China 14 per cent. That means India harbours 130,000 drug-resistant TB cases. A challenge in TB treatment is that it takes six months or more as the bacteria persists in the body for long and strongly fights the drug. The causes of antimicrobial resistance AMR in developing countries are complex and may be rooted in practices of health care professionals and patients’ behavior towards the use of antimicrobials as well as supply chains of antimicrobials in the population. Some of these factors may include inappropriate prescription practices, inadequate patient education, limited diagnostic facilities. The clinical usefulness of chloroquine, and in some recent cases of quinine as well, has been much reduced by the evolution and spread of chloroquine resistant malaria parasites. The mechanism of resistance involves a reduced accumulation of the drug, although again the mechanism involved is controversial.

    Recognition of the value of chloroquine was delayed, and it was not brought forward until it was reevaluated in the United States and designated the drug of choice against malaria near the end of World War II [3]. These studies suggest chloroquine resistance arose in ⩾4 distinct geographic foci and substantiate an important role of immunity in the outcomes of resistant infections after chloroquine treatment. Investigation of the resistance mechanisms and of the role of immunity in therapeutic outcomes will support new approaches to drugs that can take the place of chloroquine or augment its efficiency Early in the 20th century, intense demands for an effective quinine substitute launched the discovery and evaluation of a series of organic compounds (beginning with methylene blue), which led to pamaquine and quinacrine after World War I and ultimately produced chloroquine in 1934 [1, 2].

    Chloroquine and bacterial resistance

    Malaria Dissecting chloroquine resistance Current Biology, The threat of antimicrobial resistance in developing.

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  6. Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance is a major cause of worldwide increases in malaria mortality and morbidity. Recent laboratory and clinical studies have associated chloroquine resistance with point mutations in the gene pfcrt. However, direct proof of a causal relationship has remained elusive and most models have posited a multigenic basis of resistance.

    • Chloroquine Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum Malaria..
    • Chloroquine mechanism of drug action and resistance in..
    • Chloroquine Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum - microbewiki.

    Chloroquine is the drug of choice for travel to areas where chloroquine resistance has not been described. Chloroquine is active against the erythrocytic forms Fig. 6.3 of sensitive strains of all species of malaria, and it is also gametocidal against P. vivax, P. malariae, and P. ovale. Except for its bitter taste, chloroquine is usually well tolerated and has a low incidence of serious. The term “chloroquine resistance” can lead to misunderstandings when it is considered by some to refer to in vitro phenotypes, by others to refer to the ability of malaria parasites to survive chloroquine at therapeutic serum concentrations in vivo, and yet by others to refer to the outcome of a clinical episode after chloroquine therapy. An ancillary role for PfMDR1 in chloroquine resistance cannot be ruled out though. A genetic cross and mapping studies between a chloroquine resistant clone and a chloroquine sensitive clone resulted in the identification of a 36 kb region on chromosome 7 associated with chloroquine resistance.

     
  7. oldpartner Moderator

    Interferes with digestive vacuole function within sensitive malarial parasites by increasing the p H and interfering with lysosomal degradation of hemoglobin; inhibits locomotion of neutrophils and chemotaxis of eosinophils; impairs complement-dependent antigen-antibody reactions Incomplete and variable (~70% [range: 25 to 100%]) (Tett 1993) Hepatic; metabolites include bidesethylchloroquine, desethylhydroxychloroquine, and desethylchloroquine (Mc Chesney 1966) Urine (15% to 25% [Tett 1993]; as metabolites and unchanged drug [up to 60%, Mc Chesney 1966]); may be enhanced by urinary acidification Rheumatic disease: May require several weeks to respond ~40 days (Tett 1993) ~40%, primarily albumin (Tett 1993) Lupus erythematosus: Treatment of chronic discoid erythematosus and systemic lupus erythematosus in adults. Hydroxychloroquine Side Effects, Dosage, Uses, and More Hydroxychloroquine - Costco Hydroxychloroquine Professional Patient Advice -
     
  8. nikniknik New Member

    RA and Methotrexate Does Methotrexate Reduce Inflammation. It’s a treatment option with one of the longest and most well-established safety profiles of any rheumatoid arthritis drug on the market. Methotrexate and RA Treatment RA is an autoimmune disease, which means that it is caused by an abnormal immune response.

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  9. mc_baron XenForo Moderator

    Chloroquine - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses Oct 01, 2018 The dosage of Chloroquine phosphate is often expressed in terms of equivalent Chloroquine base. Each 500 mg tablet of Chloroquine phosphate contains the equivalent of 300 mg Chloroquine base. In infants and children the dosage is preferably calculated by body weight. Prophylaxis against Chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium species

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