Chloroquine resistance in p vivax

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    Chloroquine resistance in p vivax

    Rapid diagnostic assays for Pf CRT mutations are already employed as surveillance tools for drug resistance. Here, we review recent field studies that support the central role of Pf CRT mutations in chloroquine resistance.

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    Jul 16, 2018 Background. The resistance of Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine has become an obstacle to control strategies based on the use of anti-malarials. The current study investigated the association between P. vivax CQ-resistance in vivo with copy number variation and mutations in the promoter region in pvcrt-o and pvmdr1 genes. The present study examined the prevalence of mutations in dihydrofolate reductase dhfr, dihydropteroate synthase dhps genes and CQ resistance transporter crt-o genes, associated with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine SP and chloroquine resistance, among imported P. vivax cases in Qatar. The location of study sites with documented chloroquine resistance and chloroquine sensitive P. vivax is shown in Figure 2a and for chloroquine sensitive sites in Figure 2b below. Estimates for chloroquine sensitivity derived from 112 sites. In 50.9% of the sites estimates P. vivax were categorized as resistant.

    Recognition of the value of chloroquine was delayed, and it was not brought forward until it was reevaluated in the United States and designated the drug of choice against malaria near the end of World War II [3]. These studies suggest chloroquine resistance arose in ⩾4 distinct geographic foci and substantiate an important role of immunity in the outcomes of resistant infections after chloroquine treatment. Investigation of the resistance mechanisms and of the role of immunity in therapeutic outcomes will support new approaches to drugs that can take the place of chloroquine or augment its efficiency Early in the 20th century, intense demands for an effective quinine substitute launched the discovery and evaluation of a series of organic compounds (beginning with methylene blue), which led to pamaquine and quinacrine after World War I and ultimately produced chloroquine in 1934 [1, 2].

    Chloroquine resistance in p vivax

    Emergence of P. vivax resistance to chloroquine in French., Distribution of Mutations Associated with Antifolate and.

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  6. Dec 12, 2011 Chloroquine has been the backbone of vivax treatment regimens since its inception and chloroquine together with primaquine was the standard therapy for vivax malaria on the understanding that P. vivax was universally sensitive to chloroquine. The first patient with chloroquine resistant vivax malaria was reported from Papua New Guinea in 1989.

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    Chloroquine is the treatment of drug choice for P. vivax infection which kills the asexual stages of the parasite in the blood, along with primaquine that kills the hypnozoite stages of the. Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine remains an effective choice for all P. vivax and P. ovale infections except for P. vivax infections acquired in Papua New Guinea or Indonesia. The regimens listed for the treatment of P. falciparum are also effective and may be used. P. vivax infections outside of Papua New Guinea or Indonesia should be treated with chloroquine, if patient does not respond, treatment should be changed to cover chloroquine-resistant

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